External Links

The following external websites provide additional information and resources to complement the documents in the Archives Direct portal.


Apartheid South Africa, 1948-1980

BBC Archive, Profile and Timeline of South Africa
A list of programmes and video documentaries on the topic of apartheid.

Comprehensive facts and dates from the history of South Africa.

Mandela: An Audio History
A series of radio recordings about the life of Nelson Mandela and his struggle against apartheid.

Forward to Freedom
Archives telling the story of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement, 1959-1994.

African Activist Archive
Online archive of pamphlets, newsletters, leaflets, badges, posters, T-shirts, photographs, and audio and video recordings, and an international directory of library collections.

Bodleian Library, University of Oxford
Catalogue of the papers of the End Loans To Southern Africa organisation, 1974-1995.

Catalogue of the papers of the Bishop Ambrose Reeves Trust, 1965-1996.

Catalogue of the papers of Archbishop Trevor Huddleston (1913-98), 1897-1999.

Catalogue of he papers of Anthony Sampson, c. 1930-2011.

University of the Witwatersrand Historical Papers Archive
One of the largest and most comprehensive independent archives in southern Africa, housing over 3,300 collections of historical, political and cultural importance, dating from the mid-17th century to the present.

SAHA (South African History Archive): Archive for Justice
An independent human rights archive documenting and providing access to archival holdings that relate to past and contemporary struggles for justice in South Africa.

The Nordic Documentation on the Liberation Struggle in Southern Africa Project
Finding aids for primary-source materials of different Nordic archival institutions, NGOs individuals involved in the liberation struggles in southern Africa.

Nelson Mandela Foundation
A wide selection of information on Mandela's life and work.

Ruth First Papers
The collected notes, writings and papers of the anti-apartheid activist, journalist and scholar Ruth First.


Confidential Print: Africa

Fordham University: Internet History Sourcebooks
Internet African History Sourcebook

Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Africa Since 1945

Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Imperialism

Northwestern University: Visual resources on Africa at Northwestern University Library
16th-20th Century Maps of Africa

The Humphrey Winterton Collection of East African Photographs, 1860-1960

Stanford University: African History on the Internet



Confidential Print: Latin America

Center for Research Libraries: Brazilian Government Documents (in Portuguese)

Georgetown University: Political Database of the Americas (largely in Spanish and Portuguese)

University of Texas at Austin: Argentine Presidential Messages, 1810-1993 (in Spanish)

Library of Congress: The Luso-Hispanic World in Maps: Western Hemisphere
Maps of Latin America before 1900, many from the 19th century.

University of Texas at Austin: Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection Historical Maps of the Americas
Maps of the Americas from the 19th and 20th centuries.

Cornell University: The Alfredo Montalvo Bolivian Digital Pamphlets Collection

Duke University: Deena Stryker Photographs of Cuba

Harvard University: Latin American Digital Pamphlet Collection



Confidential Print: Middle East

Mideastimage.com: Lessons from the past for the future

Columbia University E-Seminar 1: Islam, Revolution, and the Modern State

Columbia University E-Seminar 2: U.S. Policy in the Persian Gulf

Columbia University E-Seminar 3: Revolution, U.S. Policy, and Cold War Politics



Confidential Print: North America

African-American Perspectives: Pamphlets from the Daniel A. P. Murray Collection 1818-1907

The Smithsonian Institution National Portrait Gallery: Civil War 150

The Crisis of the Union: An electronic archive of documents about the causes, conduct and consequences of the US Civil War

Aspiration, Acculturation, and Impact: Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930

The United States and its Territories 1870-1925: The age of imperialism
Documents focused on the Spanish-American War of 1898 and subsequent US rule in the Philippines.

Brown University Library Centre for Digital Scholarship: Alcohol, Temperance & Prohibition

Canada in the Making
Canadian constitutional documents, treaties and Acts of Parliament

The Laurier Military History Archive, Wilfrid Laurier University
Documents and photographs on Canada at war in the 20th century.

Canadian Geographic: Historical Maps of Canada

Yukon Archives: The Klondike Gold Rush

McGill Library Digital Collections: Canadian War Posters Collection

Libraries and Archives Canada: Canadian Confederation
The constitutional evolution of the Canadian polity, 1867 to the present.

The Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC)
The dLOC provides access to digitised versions of Caribbean cultural, historical and research materials held in a variety of archives, libraries and private collections.



Foreign Office Files for China

Asia for Educators
An initiative of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute at Columbia University, Asia for Educators (AFE) is designed to serve academics and students in world history, culture, geography, art, and literature at undergraduate and pre-undergraduate levels.

British Association for Chinese Studies
The British Association for Chinese Studies draws its members from academia, journalism, industry and government. The organisation runs the China Postgraduate Network for scholars of China in the UK, as well as promoting the study of China in schools. The text of the Association's Journal is available on their website.

China and the United States: From Hostility to Engagement, 1960-1998
The National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 18 from George Washington University.

The Chinese Political System and the Communist Party
This unit within the Asia for Educators website provides an overview of the Chinese political system and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), with excerpts from the state and party constitutions. These primary documents can highlight for students how the Communist Party is the real political power in China. A chart of the political structure of China is included, to help students better understand the relationship between the party and the state in a communist system. There are also discussion questions.

Historical Society for Twentieth-Century China
An international organisation for students and scholars of China, the HSTCC holds its biennial meetings in Asia, Europe and North America, and publishes the journal Twentieth-Century China.

Picturing Power: Posters of the Cultural Revolution
An exhbition of posters produced between 1963 and 1979 during the Cultural Revolution in the People's Republic of China, from the collections of the Centre for the Study of Democracy at the University of Westminster, London. Originally mounted in Indiana University in 1999, this online version is hosted by the Huntington Archive at the Ohio State University.

Record of Historic Richard Nixon-Zhou Enlai Talks in February 1972 from the US National Security Archive
This site features an introduction to these talks and digitised images of six declassified files of transcripts.

Robert Henry Chandless Photographs, University of Washington
Robert Henry Chandless was an American trader working in China in the early twentieth century. The portion of his photographic collection digitised here documents life amongst the Chinese and foreigners in China from c. 1895 to 1930, and is browsable by title and subject.

The Shanghai Municipal Police Directory
This resource, maintained by Professor Robert Bickers of the University of Bristol, contains details for 2,700 members of the SMP, mostly Britons and other Europeans but with some Chinese and Japanese. The force was founded in 1854 but most of the information here relates to members who served between 1900 and 1945.

Taiwan and U.S.-China Relations Since 1949
This unit within the Asia for Educators website offers an historical overview of Taiwan and U.S.-China relations. An introductory reading is followed by two important primary-source documents – the "Shanghai Communiqué" (1972) and Taiwan Relations Act (1979) – and discussion questions.

Virtual Museum of the "Cultural Revolution"
English version: http://www.cnd.org/cr/english/about.htm
Chinese version: www.cnd.org/CR/halls.html



Foreign Office Files for India, Pakistan and Afghanistan

Columbia University e-seminars
Gandhi: Discovering the Power of Nonviolence

Gandhi's Disciples

A Political History of Pakistan

South Asian Independence Movement Project, Yale University



Foreign Office Files for Japan, 1919-1952

Asia for Educators
An initiative of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute at Columbia University, Asia for Educators (AFE) is designed to serve academics and students in world history, culture, geography, art, and literature at undergraduate and pre-undergraduate levels.

BBC: Japan's Quest for Empire 1931-1945
Japan's slow-burning aggression was borne of frustration with a world whose order appeared tipped in favour of the west. Susan Townsend describes how the intensification of this feeling led to the Pearl Harbor attack of 1941.

Lafayette College Library East Asia Image Collections
This collection contains postcards from the Russo-Japanese War, the Sino-Japanese War, the Pacific War, the Michael Lewis Collection (colonial Taiwan), and many more places and times related to Imperial Japan.

The Tokyo War Crimes Trial: A Digital Exhibition
Established to try Japanese officials involved with the Second World War, the IMTFE set a greater precedence for international law than Nuremberg, yet is relatively under-studied in comparison. This digital exhibition includes the G Carrington Williams Photographs and Papers, Roy L Morgan Papers and C W J Phelps Collection.


Foreign Office Files for the Middle East, 1971-1981

Qatar Digital Library
Free to use and covers the modern history of the Gulf.

Wilson Center Digital Archive: Iran-Iraq War
A collection of documents relating to the Iran-Iraq war, which have been translated from the original Arabic.

Foreign Relations of the United States, 1958-1960, Near East Region; Iraq; Iran; Arabian Peninsular, Volume Xii
Primary source documents from the U.S. Department of State which provide a background context to the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). There are also other collections which relate to the Middle East.

Historical Jewish Press
Allows one to search many different Hebrew periodicals, and also those in French, Yiddish and English.

American University of Beirut Jafet Library
A collection of political posters from between the 1960s and 1980s, covering the Palestinian Question and the Lebanese Civil War.


Foreign Office Files for South East Asia, 1963-1980

History: The Founding of ASEAN

An overview of the history of the formation of ASEAN, detailing the goals and the leaders involved in its creation.

Southeast Asia Digital Library (SEADL)
A resource portal showcasing a variety of materials published or produced in South East Asia.

A digital collection of English language newspapers from Singapore and Malaya.

September 30th Movement
Information on the September 30th Movement and its wider impact.

Federation of Malaysia
A Singapore Government Agency website which provides information on the establishment on the Federation of Malaysia and Singapore’s declaration of independence.